Some various diseases/conditions are treated using interventional radiology. Some of them are:
- Vascular diseases
Peripheral arterial disease in which the arteries harden that interfere with the normal flow of blood. It is treated by interventional radiology procedures such as
- balloon angioplasty –use of a tiny balloon at the site of the blockage, which is inflated to open the blood vessel
- stents- a tiny metal cylinder or stent is inserted in the clogged vessel to hold it open
- thrombolytic therapy- if the blockage in the artery is caused by a blood clot, thrombolytic drugs administered through a catheter directly into the clot to dissolve it and restore blood flow.
- Pulmonary embolism or blood clots in the lung can be treated by using catheter tubes to break the blood clots
- Varicose veins that occur in the leg can be treated by blocking the vein by heat treatment (laser or microwave) or by the use of irritant drugs and embolization techniques.
- Deep Vein thrombosis is a blood clot in the veins, which is treated by the injection of blood clot-dissolving medicines through a small catheter passed in the vein or by using stents and balloons to break the clot in the vein.
- Cancer treatment
Interventional radiology is used to reduce or eliminate tumors using radioactive materials, heat, cold, electric current while reducing the effect on the surrounding tissues during treatment. Some of the cancer treatment options by using interventional radiology are:
- Cryoablation-using extreme cold to freeze and kill abnormal cancerous and tumor cells to prevent further growth or spread of cancerous tumors
- Irreversible electroporation-using electric pulses to accurately target infected cancerous cells, mainly used for pancreatic cancers and other cancers
- Microwave ablation-heat produced by electromagnetic currents to destroy abnormal cells. It is mainly used for the treatment of lung, liver, kidney, prostate and bone cancers
- Radiofrequency ablation- heat produced by radio waves to kill abnormal cells such as tumors
- Radioembolization-delivers radiation directly to the tumor by embolization (passing and lodging an embolus (clot) in the bloodstream). It is a treatment option for improving symptoms of liver cancer
- Trans-arterial Chemoembolization-using chemotherapy and embolization process, to reduce the size of tumors, especially in liver cancer treatment
- Tunneled drainage catheter-is used to drain fluid accumulated in the abdomen or the pleural space, area protecting the lungs. It is used in the treatment of various cancers
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
- The removal of kidney stones using endoscopic surgery in which with the help of X-ray or ultrasound guidance and a camera (nephroscope), the kidney stones are broken down in the kidney.
- Biliary interventions
Biliary interventions treat blockages, narrowing and/or injury of the passages between the liver, gallbladder and small intestine called bile ducts. If the bile ducts become blocked, it may lead to inflammation or infection also known as sclerosis cholangitis. These minimally invasive techniques remove gallstones, drain excess bile or place a stent within a bile duct to treat the condition and restore the flow of fluids.
- Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty
It is the injection of bone cement into the vertebral body to relieve pain and/or stabilize the fractured vertebra. It is a minimally-invasive procedure used to strengthen the broken vertebra caused mainly by osteoporosis and cancer.
Kyphoplasty is a variation of the procedure that involves the use of a balloon to restore the vertebral body height and shape and is followed by the injection of bone cement to strengthen it.
- Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
It is bleeding that occurs from the digestive tract. This can be a slow loss of a small amount of blood, or a sudden massive loss of blood requiring urgent treatment.
Mesenteric angiography (X-rays and a special dye is used to see inside the arteries) and embolization is an Interventional Radiological technique very commonly used to treat Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
Continental Hospitals is the best hospital for interventional radiology in Hyderabad as the hospital has the best radiologist in Hyderabad, who has performed various interventional radiology procedures on several patients with a positive outcome.