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Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders

Overview

Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders

Endocrinology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that involve hormones; it covers several topics including metabolism control, respiration, growth, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement. An endocrine system is a complex group of glands that makes the chemicals known as hormones. Hormones also control the way you respond to your surroundings, and they help to provide the proper amount of energy and nutrition your body needs to function.

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar due to reduced or non-functioning of the pancreas. The pancreas is responsible for secreting a hormone called Insulin that regulates blood sugar to optimum levels. To convert glucose into energy, cells require insulin. The prolonged inability of the pancreas to produce the necessary amount of insulin leads to increased glucose in the body and develops into Diabetes.

Whether you've been newly diagnosed, have been fighting against diabetes for a while, or are helping a loved one, you've come to the right place. This is the start of gaining a deeper understanding of how you can live a healthier life—with all the tools, health tips, and food ideas you need. Wherever you're at with this disease, know that you have options and that you don't have to be held back. You can still live your best life. All you have to do is take action and stick with it.

The body's endocrine system includes the pancreas, the thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, hypothalamus, adrenal and pituitary glands, and the ovaries and testes. It also involves many other organs that respond to, modify or metabolize hormones.

You will find some of the best diabetologists and endocrinologists in Hyderabad who deal with such conditions, at Continental Hospitals.

Why Choose Continental Hospitals for Diabetology and Endocrinology?

Continental Hospitals is a NABH and JCI-accredited facility in Hyderabad offering multi-specialty tertiary and quaternary care services. The hospital has a capacity of 750 beds with 250 operational beds currently. The hospital has Green OT, Level 3 NICU, and PICU. It is one of the best hospitals for the treatment of diabetology and endocrinology in Hyderabad.

Continental Hospitals is a part of IHH Healthcare, a leading premium integrated healthcare provider with a network of 84 hospitals and more than 16,000 licensed beds. It is one of the largest healthcare groups in the world by market capitalization and is listed in the Main Market of Bursa Malaysia and Main Board of SGX-ST.IHH is a leading player in the home markets of Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey and India, and in their key growth markets of China and Hong Kong. This makes Continental the best hospital in Hyderabad for diabetes management and endocrine disorders.

Our mission is to make a difference in peoples' lives by providing the best health care. Our sights are set on providing seamless comprehensive healthcare of the highest quality.

We aim to serve our patients and our co-workers with compassion, dignity, integrity, and mutual respect. We strive to achieve excellence in clinical service and surgical operations and become the best place for diabetology treatment in Hyderabad.

Continental endocrinologists are equipped to treat a range of endocrine disorders and dysfunctions. Many people come to Continental when their condition is unusual or complex. You may come to Continental Hospitals on your own or with a referral from your primary care doctor.

Endocrinologists work with a multidisciplinary team of specialists who collaborate to provide exactly the care you need.

Common symptoms of diabetes could be high blood sugar levels. Early signs and symptoms can include frequent urination, increased thirst, feeling tired and hungry, vision problems, slow wound healing, rapid and unexplained weight loss, extreme hunger, extreme weakness or fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, unpleasant breath odor, itchy skin, and unusual irritability.

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism -- the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes

The warning signs of diabetes can be so mild that you don’t notice them. That’s especially true of type 2 diabetes. With type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually happen quickly, in a matter of days or a few weeks. 

One of every four people with diabetes doesn’t know they have it. See if your risk of having the disease is high.

Diabetes and prediabetes are diagnosed with a fasting plasma glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, or random plasma glucose test.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing

Although doctors don’t routinely use it anymore, the oral glucose tolerance test is the gold standard for diagnosing type 2 diabetes. It’s still commonly used to diagnose gestational diabetes, a condition that a woman can get while pregnant.

HemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) Testing

The hemoglobin A1c test also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, or glycohemoglobin is an important blood test that shows how well your diabetes is being controlled.

Diabetes and Urine Testing

Two simple tests that check your urine can help you and your doctor watch for kidney disease and severe high blood sugar.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are similar to those of type 1 diabetes. But the onset of type 2 diabetes is usually slower and the symptoms are not as noticeable as those for type 1 diabetes. For these reasons, many people mistakenly overlook the warning signs. They also might think that the symptoms are the signs of other conditions, like aging, overworking or hot weather. 

Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Tests

Your doctor can test your blood for signs of type 2 diabetes. Usually, they’ll test you on two days to confirm the diagnosis. But if your blood glucose is very high or you have many symptoms, one test may be all you need.

  • A1c. It’s like an average of your blood glucose over the past 2 or 3 months.
  • Fasting plasma glucose. This is also known as a fasting blood sugar test. It measures your blood sugar on an empty stomach. You won’t be able to eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink something sweet to see how your body handles the sugar.

Diabetes is a serious disease that you cannot treat on your own. Your doctor will help you make a diabetes treatment plan that is right for you -- and that you can understand. You may also need other health care professionals on your diabetes treatment team, including a foot doctor, nutritionist, eye doctor, and diabetes specialist (called an endocrinologist). Continental Hospital, Hyderabad is the best place to visit to address all your needs.

Treatment for diabetes requires keeping close watch over your blood sugar levels (and keeping them at a goal set by your doctor) with a combination of medications, exercise, and diet. By paying close attention to what and when you eat, you can minimize or avoid the "seesaw effect" of rapidly changing blood sugar levels, which can require quick changes in medication dosages, especially insulin.

What are the diseases/conditions treated by the Department of Endocrinology?

Endocrine-related Disorders

Hyperinsulinemia: Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with type 2 diabetes, but it isn’t diabetes as such. Hyperinsulinemia means that the amount of insulin in the blood is higher than considered normal amongst non-diabetics. Insulin resistance is the primary cause of hyperinsulinemia, with the pancreas compensating by producing more insulin. Insulin resistance of this type can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas cannot secrete the insulin required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Hyperinsulinemia usually causes no signs or symptoms, except in people with an insulinoma in whom it can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Treatment of hyperinsulinemia is directed at the underlying problem.

Metabolic syndrome: Metabolic Syndrome occurs when a range of metabolic risk factors such as obesity and insulin resistance come together. Metabolic syndrome increases one’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight or obesity, inactivity and insulin resistance.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain small collections of fluid called follicles located in each ovary as seen during an ultrasound exam. Infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, and obesity can all occur in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In adolescents, infrequent or absent menstruation may raise suspicion for the condition.

Thyroid problems: Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter(enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism. Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

Adrenal conditions: Adrenal disorders can be caused by too much or too little of a particular hormone. When the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone, blood pressure rises. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can put you at risk for stroke, heart attack, heart failure, or kidney failure. Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands don’t make enough cortisol, and sometimes, aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness, decreased appetite, and weight loss. Some people experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Adrenal insufficiency is treated with hormones that replace the hormones your body is lacking. Cushing syndrome is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, or more commonly, the use of medications called glucocorticoids-cortisol-like drugs which are used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Pituitary Conditions: A tiny gland situated below the brain in the skull base, the pituitary produces a list of important hormones that help to control and set off a cascade of additional, essential endocrine effects in the body. Pituitary hormones are thus very important to endocrine function and health. They include: growth hormone; luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, anti-diuretic hormone and oxytocin.

Pituitary tumors: These abnormalities are not cancers but are overgrowths. They can cause a number of conditions related to excess secretion of pituitary hormones, which in turn is responsible for most cases of overproduction of other hormones in the body. Pituitary tumors can cause other effects due to pressure against other areas of the brain, as well. These conditions need highly knowledgeable and subspecialized care, often involving neurosurgery. Pituitary failure (or hypopituitarism). Underproduction of pituitary hormones can also result in a broad array of anatomical, physiologic and metabolic symptoms. Treatment is with supplementation of synthetic or recombinant hormones, according to the specific hormones that are deficient, in order to correct these hormone levels.

Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis, or thinning bones, can result in painful fractures. Risk factors for osteoporosis include aging, being female, low body weight, low sex hormones or menopause, smoking, and some medications. As bones weaken, the risk of sudden and unexpected fractures increases. Osteopenia is the forerunner of osteoporosis. It is a silent but destructive condition that robs bones during a woman’s — even a young woman’s — most productive time. Prevention and treatment include calcium and vitamin D, exercise, and osteoporosis medications.

Oestrogen/testosterone imbalances: The most common hormone imbalances involve oestrogen and progesterone in women. These two hormones are frequently imbalanced for one or more reasons, including birth control pills, stress. Testosterone deficiency is particularly prevalent in men over the age of 50. As the male body ages, testosterone production declines. Some men think they have symptoms of testosterone deficiency, but in reality, it’s just excess oestrogen. Sweating, Digestion Problems, Anxiety, Irritability, and Depression, Insomnia and Poor Sleep Patterns are some of the symptoms of hormonal imbalance. Infertility: Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year having sex without using birth control methods. Secondary infertility refers to couples who have been able to get pregnant at least once, but now are unable.

Female infertility may occur when a fertilized egg or embryo does not survive once it attaches to the lining of the womb (uterus); the fertilized egg does not attach to the lining of the uterus; the eggs cannot move from the ovaries to the womb or when the ovaries have problems producing eggs.

Male infertility may be due to decreased number of sperm; blockage that prevents the sperm from being released or defects in the sperm

Menopause: Menopause is the end of a woman’s menstrual cycle and fertility. It happens when the ovaries no longer make oestrogen and progesterone, two hormones needed for fertility or when your periods have stopped for 1 year. Menopause happens naturally with age. But it can also stem from surgery, treatment of a disease, or an illness. In these cases, it’s called induced or surgical menopause, or premature ovarian failure. It’s a turning point, not a disease, but it can have a big impact on a woman’s wellbeing. Menopause symptoms include irregular periods, hot flashes, night sweats, sleep difficulties, and irritability. Menopause treatments may include hormone replacement therapy or herbal.

Obesity Management

It can include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery. The main treatment for obesity consists of weight loss via dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs can produce weight loss over the short term and long-term, although combining with exercise and counseling provides greater results. It can also include taking drugs that increase the body’s metabolism. In extreme cases, surgical treatments such as Bariatric surgery are also considered.

Some of the conditions treated at Continental Hospitals are:

Diabetes-related Conditions

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar due to reduced or non-functioning of the pancreas. The pancreas is responsible for secreting a hormone called Insulin that is regulates blood sugar to optimum levels. In order to convert glucose into energy, cells require insulin. Prolonged inability of the pancreas to produce the necessary amount of insulin leads to increased glucose in the body and develops into Diabetes. Read more

Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It’s caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn’t make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A periodic test called the A1C blood test estimates glucose levels in the blood over the previous three months. It’s used to help identify overall glucose level control and the risk of complications from diabetes, including organ damage.

Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic disorder that accounts for 90‚95% of all diabetic cases worldwide. With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin. But either the amount produced is not enough for the body’s needs, or the body’s cells are resistant to it. Insulin resistance, or lack of sensitivity to insulin, happens primarily in fat, liver, and muscle cells. People who are obese — more than 20% over their ideal body weight for their height — are at particularly high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and its related medical problems. Obese people have insulin resistance. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work overly hard to produce more insulin. But even then, there is not enough insulin to keep sugars normal.

Diabetes in pregnancy (including gestational diabetes): Diabetes that’s triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, leads to insulin resistance). It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby’s growth and development. Gestational diabetes usually resolves itself after pregnancy. Having gestational diabetes does, however, put mothers at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. It can occur anywhere from a few weeks after delivery to months or years later. With gestational diabetes, risks to the unborn baby are even greater than risks to the mother. Risks to the baby include abnormal weight gain before birth, breathing problems at birth, and higher obesity and diabetes risk later in life.

Juvenile Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but typically it appears at two noticeable peaks. The first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old. Type 1 diabetes does not go away and requires lifelong treatment. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes depend on daily insulin injections or an insulin pump to control their blood glucose levels. It can be hereditary. Read more

Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad provides you the best diabetes doctors in the country. Our consultants are widely renowned in their respective fields and come with a wide range of experience and expertise, with qualifications from premier institutes. Specialists in various branches of Diabetology, our doctors deliver comprehensive treatment and care. Visit us at Continental Hospitals, Hyderabad, for consulting with the best team of diabetologists in India.

Our doctors have specializations from well-known institutes and are selected with great care. They are encouraged to update themselves, carry out research and improve the quality of treatment given to our patients. There are conferences and live courses conducted which help the doctors to grow professionally that may be immediately applied to individual practice and system improvement.

The Continental Centre for Endocrinology & Metabolic Disorders features an expert panel of endocrinologists, diabetologists, dieticians and physiotherapists. This specialized team ensures that every patient is treated comprehensively. Our doctors integrate their years of experience with the latest technology to create customized treatment and post-surgery care plans. They specialize in the management of bone diseases, thyroid disorders, diabetes, pituitary disorders, adrenal disorders, and disorders of male and female hormones.

Dr Sunil Epuri

MBBS, MD (Paediatrics), DM (Endocrinology)

Consultant Endocrinologist

We are with you in your journey to better health

A consultation with our panel of doctors, specialists and surgeons will help you determine what kind of services you may need to help diagnose and treat your condition. If you or someone in your family or friend’s circle are facing any health issues, please get in touch with us, we are here for you.

 

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