Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Treatment

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells found on the surface of the skin. It is one of the most common forms of skin cancer and can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the mouth, throat, esophagus, lungs, and genitalia. This cancer develops when normal squamous cells undergo abnormal changes in their DNA. These changes cause the cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. The main risk factor for developing squamous cell carcinoma is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning beds. Other risk factors include a weakened immune system, previous radiation therapy, exposure to certain chemicals or substances like arsenic or coal tar, and a history of chronic wounds or scars. Early detection and treatment are crucial for managing squamous cell carcinoma effectively. Common signs and symptoms include persistent red patches or sores that do not heal, rough scaly patches with an elevated border, growths with a central depression or crusted surface, and persistent itching or bleeding. If you notice any suspicious changes on your skin that resemble these symptoms or have any concerns about Squamous Cell Carcinoma, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional promptly. They can perform a thorough examination and recommend further diagnostic tests if necessary. Remember that prevention is key when it comes to SCC. Protecting your skin from excessive sun exposure by wearing sunscreen with high SPF levels, seeking shade during peak UV hours, wearing protective clothing such as hats and long-sleeved shirts, and avoiding tanning beds can significantly reduce your risk of developing this type of cancer.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Squamous Cell Carcinoma, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Cancer Specialist.


Understanding the causes of squamous cell carcinoma is crucial in order to prevent and effectively treat this type of skin cancer. While exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds is a well-known risk factor, there are other factors that can contribute to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. One of the primary causes of squamous cell carcinoma is prolonged and cumulative exposure to UV radiation. This can occur through excessive sun exposure over time or through regular use of indoor tanning beds. UV radiation damages the DNA in skin cells, leading to genetic mutations that can result in cancerous growth. In addition to UV radiation, other factors such as a weakened immune system can increase the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. People with conditions that suppress their immune system, such as organ transplant recipients or individuals with certain autoimmune diseases, are more susceptible to developing this form of skin cancer. Also, certain environmental and occupational exposures have been linked to an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma. These include exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, coal tar, and certain industrial solvents. Chronic inflammation from conditions like chronic wounds or burns may also contribute to the development of this type of cancer. It's important for individuals at higher risk for squamous cell carcinoma, including those with fair skin, a history of sunburns, or a family history of skin cancer, to take proactive measures in protecting their skin from harmful UV radiation. This includes wearing protective clothing and hats when outdoors, seeking shade during peak sun hours, regularly applying broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high SPF rating, and avoiding indoor tanning altogether.

Risk Factors

One of the primary risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma is excessive sun exposure. Prolonged periods of time spent in the sun without adequate protection can damage the skin cells, increasing the likelihood of developing this type of skin cancer. Other risk factors include a history of frequent sunburns, tanning bed use, and living in regions with high levels of UV radiation. Additionally, certain lifestyle choices can contribute to an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking tobacco products has been linked to a higher incidence of this type of cancer, as well as heavy alcohol consumption. Individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions such as HIV/AIDS or those taking immunosuppressant medications are also at a higher risk. It's important to note that while these risk factors may increase an individual's chances of developing squamous cell carcinoma, they do not guarantee its development. However, by being aware of these factors and taking appropriate precautions such as wearing sunscreen, protective clothing, avoiding excessive sun exposure during peak hours, quitting smoking, and practicing moderation with alcohol consumption, individuals can significantly reduce their risks and promote overall skin health.


One common symptom of squamous cell carcinoma is the appearance of a firm, red nodule or a flat sore on the skin. These lesions may have a rough, scaly surface and can sometimes bleed or crust over. They often develop on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and hands. In some cases, squamous cell carcinoma can manifest as a persistent sore that fails to heal or keeps coming back in the same spot. This can be accompanied by tenderness or pain in the affected area. Additionally, individuals with squamous cell carcinoma may experience changes in their skin texture, such as thickening or roughening. They might also notice changes in coloration, including darkening or reddening of previously normal skin. It's important to note that these symptoms may vary from person to person and not everyone will experience all of them. If you notice any unusual changes in your skin that persist for more than a few weeks or appear to be worsening over time, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment options. Early detection plays a crucial role in successfully managing squamous cell carcinoma, so staying vigilant and seeking medical attention when needed can make all the difference in ensuring positive outcomes.

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Early detection is crucial for successful treatment, making accurate diagnosis paramount. Medical practitioners employ various techniques and tools to diagnose this type of skin cancer. One common diagnostic method is a thorough examination of the affected area by a dermatologist. They carefully inspect the skin for any visible signs of squamous cell carcinoma, such as scaly patches, open sores, or changes in moles or existing lesions. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. During a biopsy, a small sample of tissue is extracted from the suspicious area and sent to a laboratory for further analysis. The tissue sample is examined under a microscope by pathologists who specialize in identifying cancer cells. This process helps determine if squamous cell carcinoma is present and provides valuable information about its stage and aggressiveness. In addition to physical examination and biopsies, advanced imaging techniques may also be utilized in diagnosing squamous cell carcinoma. Imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans can help assess the extent of the cancer's spread within the body, aiding in treatment planning. Early detection through accurate diagnosis plays an essential role in effectively managing squamous cell carcinoma. Seeking prompt medical attention and consulting with healthcare professionals are crucial steps towards timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment options for this type of skin cancer.


The choice of treatment depends on various factors such as the stage of the cancer, its location, and the overall health of the patient. One common approach to treating squamous cell carcinoma is through surgical intervention. This may involve removing the tumor along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. In some cases, lymph nodes in the area may also be removed to prevent further spread of cancer cells. Another treatment option is radiation therapy, which uses high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells. This method is often used when surgery is not possible or as an adjuvant therapy after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy is also utilized in certain cases to treat squamous cell carcinoma. It involves using powerful drugs that target rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be administered orally or intravenously and may be used alone or in combination with other treatments. Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising option for treating squamous cell carcinoma. It works by boosting the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively. This approach has shown significant success in some patients and continues to be an area of active research. Lastly, targeted therapy utilizes drugs that specifically target certain genetic mutations or proteins present in squamous cell carcinoma cells. By blocking these specific targets, targeted therapy aims to inhibit tumor growth and progression.

Preventive Measures

One of the most effective ways to prevent squamous cell carcinoma is by minimizing your exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This means avoiding excessive sun exposure, especially during peak hours when the sun's rays are strongest. When outdoors, it is crucial to wear protective clothing such as wide-brimmed hats, long-sleeved shirts, and sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays. Furthermore, applying broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high SPF regularly and generously can provide an additional layer of protection against harmful UV radiation. It is important to remember that sunscreen should be reapplied every two hours or more frequently if you are sweating or swimming. Regular self-examinations of your skin can also play a vital role in early detection and prevention of squamous cell carcinoma. By familiarizing yourself with your body's moles, freckles, and other skin markings, you will be more likely to notice any changes or abnormalities that may require medical attention.

Do's & Don’t's

When it comes to dealing with squamous cell carcinoma, it is important to be aware of the do's and don'ts to ensure proper care and management. By following these guidelines, you can enhance your understanding of the condition and take necessary steps towards prevention and treatment. 

Do's Don't
Protect your skin with SPF 30+ sunscreen daily, especially in sun-exposed areas. Neglect any changes in skin texture, color, or moles.
Conduct self-examinations monthly to detect any new or changing lesions. Avoid artificial tanning beds, as they emit harmful UV rays.
Consult a dermatologist if you notice any suspicious lesions or changes in your skin. Delay seeking medical advice upon noticing abnormalities.
Wear wide-brimmed hats, seek shade, and use protective clothing when outdoors. Miss scheduled follow-up appointments with healthcare providers.
Keep skin hydrated with moisturizers to prevent dryness and irritation. Engage in smoking, which can exacerbate skin damage.
Consume a balanced diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins to support skin health. Avoid prolonged sun exposure, especially during peak hours.
Be aware of risk factors such as sun exposure, age, and a weakened immune system. Disregard any signs of infection, inflammation, or persistent sores.

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Squamous Cell Carcinoma, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Cancer Specialist.

Frequently Asked Questions
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a type of skin cancer that develops from the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells found on the surface of the skin. It commonly occurs in areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, ears, neck, and hands.
The primary risk factor for SCC is excessive sun exposure over time. Other risk factors include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to artificial UV radiation (such as tanning beds), a weakened immune system, certain genetic conditions, and exposure to certain chemicals or substances.
SCC typically appears as a red or pink bump or patch on the skin that may be scaly or rough in texture. It can also resemble an open sore or wart-like growth that fails to heal properly. If left untreated, it can grow deeper into the skin and potentially spread to other parts of the body.
A dermatologist will typically perform a thorough examination of any suspicious areas on your skin and may recommend a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. During a biopsy, a small sample of tissue is taken from the affected area and examined under a microscope by a pathologist.
Treatment options for SCC depend on several factors including its size, location, depth of invasion, and whether it has spread beyond its original site. Common treatment approaches include surgical excision (removal), Mohs surgery (a specialized technique for removing complex tumors layer by layer), cryotherapy (freezing), radiation therapy, topical medications (for early-stage lesions), and immunotherapy.
While it may not be possible to completely prevent SCC, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk. These include avoiding excessive sun exposure, especially during peak hours, wearing protective clothing and sunscreen with a high SPF, regularly examining your skin for any changes or abnormalities, and seeking prompt medical attention if you notice any suspicious growths.
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