Vulvar Cancer: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Treatment

Vulvar Cancer

Vulvar cancer is a topic that deserves attention and understanding due to its impact on women's health. It refers to the development of cancerous cells in the vulva, which is the external part of a woman's genitalia. Vulvar cancer can manifest in different forms, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and basal cell carcinoma. It typically starts as precancerous changes in the skin cells of the vulva and progresses over time if left untreated. Understanding what vulvar cancer is can help individuals recognize potential symptoms such as persistent itching or pain, changes in skin color or texture, lumps or ulcers on the vulva, and abnormal bleeding. Early detection plays a crucial role in successful treatment outcomes. It is essential for women to be proactive about their health by scheduling regular check-ups with their healthcare providers. If any concerning symptoms arise or there is a family history of vulvar cancer, it is recommended to seek medical attention promptly.

Symptoms of Vulvar cancer

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Vulvar cancer, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Cancer Specialist.


One of the primary causes of vulvar cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection that can lead to the development of abnormal cells in the vulva, which may eventually become cancerous. It's important for individuals to receive regular HPV vaccinations and practice safe sexual behaviors to reduce their risk. Chronic skin conditions, such as lichen sclerosus or lichen planus, can also contribute to the development of vulvar cancer. These conditions cause long-term inflammation and irritation in the vulva, which can increase the likelihood of cellular changes leading to cancer. Additionally, smoking has been linked to an increased risk of developing vulvar cancer. The harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke can damage DNA and weaken the immune system, making it more difficult for the body to fight off abnormal cell growth. It's worth noting that while these factors are associated with an increased risk of vulvar cancer, not all individuals with these risk factors will develop the disease. Regular screenings and early detection are key in identifying any abnormalities or signs of vulvar cancer at its earliest stages when treatment options are most effective. By understanding and addressing these causes, we can work towards reducing the incidence of vulvar cancer and promoting better overall health for women everywhere.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors have been identified in relation to vulvar cancer. Firstly, age plays a significant role, with the majority of cases occurring in women over the age of 50. Additionally, exposure to certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the likelihood of developing vulvar cancer. It is important to note that not all HPV infections lead to cancer, but certain high-risk strains can pose a greater threat. Other risk factors include a history of precancerous conditions such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which increases the chances of developing vulvar cancer in the future. Smoking has also been linked to an increased risk, as tobacco contains harmful chemicals that can damage cells and increase the likelihood of abnormal cell growth. Furthermore, individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone organ transplantation may be at higher risk for developing vulvar cancer. Understanding these risk factors empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their health and take necessary precautions. Regular screenings, practicing safe sexual behaviors, quitting smoking, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are essential steps towards reducing the risk of developing vulvar cancer. By being proactive and aware, we can work towards a future where this disease becomes less prevalent and more manageable.


Recognizing the symptoms of vulvar cancer is crucial for early detection and prompt treatment. While each individual may experience different symptoms, being aware of the common indicators can help in seeking medical attention and receiving appropriate care. One of the most common symptoms of vulvar cancer is the presence of a lump or mass on the vulva. This lump may feel hard or have an irregular shape. It is important to note that not all lumps are cancerous, but any unusual growth should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Another symptom to watch out for is persistent itching or pain in the vulva. This discomfort may be accompanied by tenderness or a burning sensation. If these symptoms persist for more than a few weeks without any apparent cause, it is advisable to consult a healthcare provider. Changes in the color or texture of the skin on the vulva can also be indicative of vulvar cancer. This may include redness, thickening, or development of white patches on the skin. Any unexplained changes in appearance should be evaluated by a medical professional. Additionally, experiencing abnormal bleeding from the vagina outside of menstrual periods or after menopause could be a sign of vulvar cancer. This includes bleeding during sexual intercourse as well. It is important not to ignore these symptoms and seek medical advice promptly. While these are some common symptoms associated with vulvar cancer, it is essential to remember that everyone's experience may vary. Regular self-examinations and routine gynecological check-ups are key in detecting any abnormalities early on and ensuring timely intervention if needed. If you notice any persistent or concerning symptoms related to your vulva, it is always best to consult with your healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment options tailored to your specific needs.

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One of the primary methods used for diagnosing vulvar cancer is a thorough physical examination. During this examination, a healthcare provider will carefully inspect the vulva for any abnormalities or signs of cancerous growth. They may also perform a pelvic exam to check for any lumps or enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area. In addition to physical examinations, various imaging tests can be utilized to aid in the diagnosis of vulvar cancer. These tests include ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. These imaging techniques allow healthcare professionals to obtain detailed images of the affected area and determine the extent of the disease. A biopsy is another essential diagnostic tool for confirming a suspected case of vulvar cancer. During this procedure, a small tissue sample is taken from the affected area and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results from the biopsy can provide valuable information about the type and stage of vulvar cancer present. It is worth noting that early-stage vulvar cancers may not always cause noticeable symptoms or visible changes on physical examination. Therefore, regular screenings are vital for detecting any potential abnormalities at an early stage when treatment options are more effective.


There are various treatment options available for vulvar cancer, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. Surgery is often the primary method used, which may involve removing a portion or all of the vulva, nearby lymph nodes, and sometimes other affected tissues. In addition to surgery, radiation therapy may be recommended. This involves using high-energy beams to target and kill cancer cells. It can be used before surgery (neoadjuvant) to shrink tumors or after surgery (adjuvant) to eradicate any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy is another treatment option that uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It can be administered orally or intravenously and may be given in combination with radiation therapy (chemoradiation) for more advanced cases. In some instances, targeted therapy may also be utilized. This form of treatment specifically targets certain molecules or pathways involved in tumor growth and progression.

Preventive Measures

One of the most effective ways to prevent vulvar cancer is through regular screenings and early detection. Routine check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any abnormalities or precancerous changes in the vulvar area, allowing for timely intervention and treatment if necessary. Maintaining good hygiene practices is also essential in preventing vulvar cancer. Keeping the genital area clean and dry, avoiding harsh soaps or douches, and wearing breathable cotton underwear can help minimize irritation and reduce the risk of developing infections or other conditions that may contribute to the development of vulvar cancer. Another important preventive measure is practicing safe sexual behavior. Engaging in protected sex by using condoms and limiting your number of sexual partners can decrease the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that have been linked to an increased likelihood of developing vulvar cancer. Furthermore, adopting a healthy lifestyle can play a significant role in preventing not only vulvar cancer but also various other types of cancers. This includes maintaining a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins while limiting processed foods and sugary drinks. Regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight are also important factors that contribute to overall well-being and lower the risk of developing many types of cancers.

Do's & Don’t's

When it comes to vulvar cancer, it is important to be aware of the do's and don'ts to ensure proper care and prevention. By following these guidelines, you can take proactive steps towards maintaining your health and reducing the risk of developing vulvar cancer. 

Do's Don't
Regular Check-ups: Attend scheduled gynecological check-ups and screenings. Delaying Check-ups: Avoid ignoring symptoms or delaying doctor visits if you notice any abnormalities or changes in the vulvar area.
Maintain Hygiene: Practice good hygiene, keeping the vulvar area clean and dry. Harsh Products: Avoid using harsh soaps, douches, or scented products that may irritate the area.
Seek Support: Reach out for emotional support from friends, family, support groups, or counselors. Isolation: Don't isolate yourself; seek help and support from healthcare professionals and support groups to cope with the challenges.
Communicate with Doctors: Discuss treatment options, concerns, and questions with your healthcare team. Self-Medication: Avoid self-medicating or trying alternative treatments without consulting your healthcare provider.
Follow Treatment Plan: Adhere to the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare team. Ignoring Side Effects: Don’t ignore or downplay side effects of treatment; inform your healthcare provider about any discomfort or adverse reactions.
Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet and engage in gentle physical activities as advised by your healthcare provider. Unhealthy Habits: Avoid smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and unhealthy eating habits that can negatively impact your overall health.
Monitor Changes: Keep track of any changes in symptoms or the vulvar area and report them to your doctor. Ignoring Symptoms: Don't dismiss new or worsening symptoms; report any changes promptly to your healthcare provider.

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Vulvar cancer, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Cancer Specialist.

Frequently Asked Questions
Vulvar cancer refers to the abnormal growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the vulva, which is the external part of a woman's genitals. It typically starts as precancerous changes and may progress into invasive cancer if left untreated.
Early-stage vulvar cancer may not exhibit any noticeable symptoms. However, as the disease progresses, common signs may include persistent itching, pain or tenderness, changes in skin color or texture, lumps or ulcers on the vulva, and bleeding that is unrelated to menstruation.
While anyone can develop vulvar cancer, certain factors increase the risk. These include advanced age (typically over 60), infection with certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), smoking, a history of precancerous conditions or previous genital cancers, chronic skin conditions affecting the vulva, and a weakened immune system.
Diagnosis often involves a thorough physical examination by a healthcare professional specializing in gynecologic oncology. Additional tests such as biopsies, colposcopy (examination using a special magnifying device), imaging studies like ultrasound or MRI scans may be recommended to determine the extent and stage of the disease.
Treatment options depend on various factors including stage and type of vulvar cancer as well as individual patient preferences. Common treatment modalities include surgery (removal of affected tissue), radiation therapy (using high-energy rays to kill cancer cells), chemotherapy (medications that target and destroy rapidly dividing cells), immunotherapy (boosting the immune system to fight cancer), and targeted therapy (drugs that specifically target cancer cells).
While there is no guaranteed way to prevent vulvar cancer, certain measures can help reduce the risk. These include practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against HPV, maintaining good genital hygiene, avoiding tobacco use, and attending regular gynecological check-ups.
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