Benign intracranial hypertension: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Treatment

Benign intracranial hypertension

Benign intracranial hypertension, also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or pseudotumor cerebri, is a medical condition characterized by increased pressure within the skull. Despite its name, it is not actually benign and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. This condition occurs when the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord cannot properly drain, leading to a buildup of pressure. The exact cause of benign intracranial hypertension is still unknown, but it has been linked to certain risk factors such as obesity, certain medications, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions. The symptoms of benign intracranial hypertension can vary from person to person but often include severe headaches that are worse in the morning or with changes in body position. Other common symptoms may include visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, pulsatile tinnitus (ringing in the ears), nausea, and vomiting. If you suspect you may have benign intracranial hypertension or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. A healthcare professional will be able to perform a thorough evaluation and determine the appropriate course of treatment. While there is no cure for benign intracranial hypertension, treatment options are available to help manage the condition and alleviate symptoms. These may include lifestyle modifications such as weight loss if obesity is a contributing factor, medications to reduce fluid production or increase fluid drainage, and in some cases surgical interventions may be necessary.

Symptoms of  benign intracranial hypertension

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Benign Intracranial Hypertension, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Neurologist.


Understanding the causes of benign intracranial hypertension is crucial for both medical professionals and patients alike. This condition, also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is characterized by increased pressure within the skull in the absence of a tumor or other identifiable cause. Although the exact cause of benign intracranial hypertension remains unknown, there are several factors that have been associated with its development. One potential cause is an imbalance in the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord, and any disruption in its flow can lead to increased pressure within the skull. Other potential causes include hormonal imbalances, such as an excess production of certain hormones like estrogen or corticosteroids. These hormonal changes can affect CSF production and absorption, contributing to elevated intracranial pressure. Certain medications have also been linked to benign intracranial hypertension. For example, some antibiotics, oral contraceptives, and certain medications used to treat acne have been associated with this condition. It's important for individuals taking these medications to be aware of this potential side effect and discuss any concerns with their healthcare provider. Additionally, obesity has been identified as a risk factor for developing benign intracranial hypertension. The exact mechanism behind this association is not fully understood but it may be related to increased intra-abdominal pressure affecting CSF dynamics. While these factors have been implicated in the development of benign intracranial hypertension, it's important to note that each case may have different underlying causes or contributing factors. A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the specific cause in each individual case.

Risk Factors

Understanding the risk factors associated with benign intracranial hypertension is crucial for both medical professionals and individuals seeking to prevent or manage this condition. While the exact cause of benign intracranial hypertension remains unknown, several risk factors have been identified that may contribute to its development. One significant risk factor is gender, as women between the ages of 20 and 50 are more commonly affected by this condition. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or with the use of certain medications, such as oral contraceptives, may play a role in increasing the risk. Obesity is another prominent risk factor for benign intracranial hypertension. Excess weight can lead to increased pressure within the skull, potentially contributing to the development of this condition. Therefore, maintaining a healthy body weight through proper diet and regular exercise may help reduce the risk. Certain medications have also been associated with an increased likelihood of developing benign intracranial hypertension. These include certain antibiotics, corticosteroids, and medications used to treat acne or acne-like conditions. It is important for individuals taking these medications to be aware of this potential risk and discuss it with their healthcare provider. Other underlying health conditions such as sleep apnea, hypothyroidism, and certain autoimmune disorders have also been linked to an increased susceptibility to benign intracranial hypertension.


One of the most common symptoms of benign intracranial hypertension is headaches. These headaches are often described as severe and throbbing, typically worse in the morning or after changing positions. They may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, or visual disturbances such as double vision or blurred vision. Another symptom to watch out for is papilledema, which refers to swelling of the optic disc in the eye. This can be detected during an eye examination and may cause visual changes or even loss of vision if left untreated. In addition to headaches and papilledema, individuals with benign intracranial hypertension may experience pulsatile tinnitus - a persistent ringing sound in the ears that synchronizes with their heartbeat. This symptom can be quite distressing and interfere with daily activities. It is important to note that these symptoms can vary from person to person, and some individuals may not experience all of them. If you are experiencing any persistent or concerning symptoms related to your head or vision, it is essential to seek medical attention for proper evaluation and diagnosis. Early recognition of these symptoms plays a crucial role in managing benign intracranial hypertension effectively. By promptly addressing this condition with appropriate medical intervention, individuals can minimize potential complications and improve their overall quality of life.


Diagnosing benign intracranial hypertension can be a complex task, requiring a careful evaluation of symptoms and medical history. However, with advancements in medical technology and diagnostic techniques, healthcare professionals are now better equipped to accurately identify this condition. One of the primary methods used in diagnosing benign intracranial hypertension is through a comprehensive neurological examination. This involves assessing the patient's vision, eye movements, and reflexes to look for any abnormalities that may indicate increased pressure within the skull. In addition to the neurological examination, imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans may be conducted. These imaging studies help visualize the brain and its surrounding structures, allowing doctors to detect any signs of swelling or abnormalities that could be indicative of benign intracranial hypertension. Another important aspect of diagnosis is measuring cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This is typically done through a procedure called lumbar puncture or spinal tap. During this procedure, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid is extracted from the lower back using a thin needle. The pressure of this fluid can then be measured to determine if it is elevated, which is often seen in cases of benign intracranial hypertension. It's worth noting that diagnosing benign intracranial hypertension requires ruling out other potential causes for similar symptoms such as brain tumors or blood clots. Therefore, additional tests may be necessary depending on individual cases. Overall, while diagnosing benign intracranial hypertension can present challenges due to its similarities with other conditions, healthcare professionals have access to various diagnostic tools and techniques that aid in accurate identification. By utilizing these resources effectively and considering all relevant factors including symptoms and medical history, doctors can provide timely and appropriate treatment for patients affected by this condition.


One common treatment option is the use of medications. Diuretics, such as acetazolamide, are often prescribed to reduce the production of cerebrospinal fluid and lower intracranial pressure. Other medications, such as pain relievers or anti-inflammatory drugs, may also be used to manage associated symptoms. In some cases, weight loss may be recommended as a part of the treatment plan. Losing excess weight can help reduce intracranial pressure and improve symptoms. Lifestyle modifications, such as adopting a healthy diet and engaging in regular exercise, may also be beneficial. In more severe cases or when other treatments are not effective, surgical intervention may be necessary. This can involve the placement of a shunt system to divert excess cerebrospinal fluid away from the brain or optic nerve sheath fenestration to relieve pressure on the optic nerve. It is important for individuals with benign intracranial hypertension to work closely with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment approach for their specific situation. Regular monitoring and follow-up appointments will also be necessary to evaluate response to treatment and make any necessary adjustments.

Preventive Measures

One of the key strategies for prevention is maintaining a healthy lifestyle. This includes adopting a well-balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing weight within a healthy range. By doing so, individuals can lower the chances of developing conditions such as obesity or hypertension, which are known to be risk factors for benign intracranial hypertension. Additionally, it is important to prioritize regular eye exams. These examinations can help detect any potential vision changes or abnormalities that may be associated with benign intracranial hypertension. Early detection and intervention can significantly improve outcomes and prevent further complications. Furthermore, individuals should be cautious when using certain medications that have been linked to an increased risk of benign intracranial hypertension. It is advisable to consult with healthcare professionals before starting any new medications or making changes to existing ones. Lastly, stress management techniques such as relaxation exercises, meditation, or therapy can play a significant role in preventing benign intracranial hypertension. Stress has been identified as a potential trigger for this condition; therefore, finding effective ways to manage stress levels can be beneficial. In conclusion, prevention plays a vital role in mitigating the risks associated with benign intracranial hypertension. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, prioritizing eye exams, being cautious with medication use, and practicing stress management techniques, individuals can take proactive steps towards reducing their chances of developing this condition.

Do's & Don’t's

When it comes to managing benign intracranial hypertension, there are certain do's and don'ts that can greatly impact the overall well-being of individuals dealing with this condition. By following these guidelines, patients can effectively manage their symptoms and minimize potential complications. 

Do's Don't
Do: Follow your doctor's treatment plan. Don't: Ignore symptoms or delay medical care.
Do: Take prescribed medications as directed. Don't: Stop medications without consulting your doctor.
Do: Maintain a healthy weight. Don't: Gain excessive weight rapidly.
Do: Monitor and manage salt intake. Don't: Consume excessive amounts of salt.
Do: Stay hydrated. Don't: Allow yourself to become dehydrated.
Do: Eat a balanced diet. Don't: Rely on high-sodium or processed foods.
Do: Regularly follow-up with your healthcare provider. Don't: Skip or miss medical appointments.
Do: Manage stress levels. Don't: Allow chronic stress to worsen symptoms.
Do: Use sunglasses when exposed to bright light. Don't: Overexpose yourself to bright lights or glare.
Do: Practice good posture. Don't: Spend excessive time in positions that strain the neck or head.
Do: Inform your healthcare provider of any changes in symptoms. Don't: Ignore or downplay changes in symptoms.

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Benign Intracranial Hypertension, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Neurologist.

Frequently Asked Questions
Benign intracranial hypertension, also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or pseudotumor cerebri, is a condition characterized by increased pressure within the skull. Despite the name ""benign,"" it can cause significant symptoms and complications if left untreated.
Common symptoms include severe headaches, often described as pulsating or throbbing, visual disturbances such as double vision or blurred vision, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and neck pain. Some individuals may also experience nausea, vomiting, and changes in their sense of smell.
The exact cause of this condition is unknown. However, certain factors have been associated with its development, including obesity, hormonal imbalances (such as excess vitamin A intake), certain medications (such as tetracycline antibiotics), and certain medical conditions like sleep apnea.
Diagnosis typically involves a thorough medical history review and physical examination by a healthcare professional. Additional tests may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other potential causes. These tests may include eye examinations to assess optic nerve swelling (papilledema), imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans of the brain, and lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure.
Treatment aims to reduce symptoms and prevent complications related to increased intracranial pressure. It may involve lifestyle modifications such as weight loss for obese individuals and avoiding medications that can worsen symptoms. Medications like diuretics may be prescribed to decrease fluid retention in the body and reduce cerebrospinal fluid production. In some cases, surgical interventions like optic nerve sheath fenestration or shunt placement may be considered.
If left untreated or poorly managed, benign intracranial hypertension can potentially lead to permanent vision loss. This is why early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in preventing complications and preserving visual function.
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