Depression: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Treatment


Depression, often referred to clinically as major depressive disorder (MDD), is more than just feeling down or having a bad day. It is a serious mood disorder characterized by a prolonged sense of sadness and despair, which impacts various facets of a person's life. From affecting physical health to crippling one's ability to perform daily tasks or engage in social activities, depression takes a toll on general well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, with over 264 million individuals affected. Treatment is multifaceted and can encompass cognitive behavioural therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes, among others. Early diagnosis and intervention can play a pivotal role in improving outcomes for those afflicted.

Symptoms of Depression

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Depression, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Psychologist.


The exact cause of depression remains elusive and is believed to arise from a synergy of several factors: • Biological Differences: Research has shown that the brains of individuals with depression may appear different than those without it, particularly in areas responsible for mood regulation. The significance of these differences is still being explored. • Brain Chemistry: Neurotransmitters, the brain's chemical messengers, play a role in mood states. Imbalances in these chemicals, especially serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, might contribute to depression. • Hormonal Changes: Hormonal imbalances might trigger or exacerbate depression. Such imbalances can arise during pregnancy, menstruation, menopause, or due to conditions like thyroid disorders. • Inherited Traits: Depression seems to be more prevalent in individuals whose biological family members also have the condition, suggesting a genetic susceptibility. However, not everyone with a family history develops depression, indicating that environmental factors also play a part. • Traumatic or Stressful Events: Life-altering events, such as the death of a loved one, financial problems, high levels of stress, or trauma (even if experienced in early childhood), can act as triggers for the onset of depression. These experiences can produce lasting changes in stress-related brain regions, making an individual more susceptible to depression.

Risk Factors

Several elements can amplify the risk of developing or triggering depression: • Personal or Family History: A family or personal history of depression increases one's risk. This could be due to genetics, learned behaviour, or shared environmental factors. • Trauma: Traumatic events experienced early in life, such as abuse, neglect, or loss of a parent, may make the brain more susceptible to depressive disorders. • Certain Medications: Some drugs, especially those for high blood pressure or treating anxiety, have been associated with an increased risk of depression. • Substance Abuse: Alcohol, narcotics, and certain other substances can increase the risk of depression and also make antidepressant medications less effective. • Chronic Illness: Coexistence of chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, or chronic pain, can increase the risk of developing depression. • Other Mental Health Disorders: Having an anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, etc., can elevate one's risk for concurrent depression. • Personality Traits: Traits such as being overly dependent, pessimistic, or having low self-esteem can make one more vulnerable to depression. • Experiencing Discrimination or Stigma: Being a part of marginalized groups or experiencing discrimination based on race, gender, sexuality, etc., can increase the risk of depression due to added life stressors.


Depression manifests in myriad ways, often varying from person to person. Its symptoms are diverse, affecting emotional, physical, and behavioural aspects of an individual. These include: • Emotional Symptoms: • Persistent Sadness: A continuous feeling of unhappiness or sorrow. • Hopelessness: Overwhelming feelings of gloom and doom. • Irritability: Increased frustration, even over small matters. • Anxiety and Restlessness: Continuous feelings of worry, agitation, or nervousness. • Guilt and Worthlessness: Fixating on past failures or blaming oneself for things that aren't one's responsibility. • Lack of Interest: Reduced interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, including sex, hobbies, or sports. • Physical Symptoms: • Appetite or Weight Changes: Significant weight loss without dieting, weight gain, or decreased or increased appetite. • Sleep Disorders: Insomnia or hypersomnia. • Fatigue: A consistent feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. • Aches: Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches. • Slowed Movements or Speech: Observable by others and not a feeling of restlessness. • Behavioural Symptoms: • Reduced Cognitive Abilities: Difficulty thinking, concentrating, making decisions, or remembering things. • Frequent or Recurrent Thoughts of Death: Suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, or suicide. • Withdrawal: Avoiding social or work activities and engagements.

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The diagnosis of depression entails a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional. It's essential to distinguish depression from other medical conditions and to ascertain its specific type. The process usually involves: • Physical Examination: A doctor may conduct a physical exam and ask in-depth questions about health to determine what may be causing depression. In some cases, depression may be linked to an underlying physical health problem. • Lab Tests: These might include a blood test to check the thyroid or a complete blood count, as these can sometimes be associated with depressive symptoms. • Psychiatric Evaluation: This includes discussing thoughts, feelings, and behaviour patterns. You may also be asked about your familial and personal history of depression or other mood disorders. • DSM-5 Criteria: Doctors and mental health professionals use the criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, to diagnose major depressive disorder.


Treating depression is paramount for improving the overall quality of life. Depending on the severity and individual factors, various treatments might be recommended: • Medications: • Antidepressants: They work on brain chemicals implicated in mood regulation. It may take several weeks to notice effects. Examples include SSRIs (like Prozac and Zoloft), SNRIs (like Effexor XR and Cymbalta), and MAOIs (like Marplan and Nardil). • Mood Stabilizers: Drugs like lithium can be effective, especially if there's a bipolar component. • Antipsychotics: In cases of severe or resistant depression, medications like Abilify or Seroquel XR might be prescribed. • Anti-anxiety: Medications like benzodiazepines can help but might be used with caution due to dependency risks. • Psychotherapy: This can be beneficial for many individuals with depression. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and problem-solving therapy are among the most studied and most effective treatments. • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): Used primarily for severe depression unresponsive to other treatments, or when there's a need for rapid response (as in the case of suicide risk). It involves electrical stimulation of the brain while the patient is under anaesthesia. • Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS): It's a newer approach, where magnets are used to target and stimulate certain areas of the brain. • Lifestyle and Home Remedies: Elements like avoiding alcohol and recreational drugs, making dietary changes, ensuring adequate sleep, reducing stress, and engaging in regular physical activity can play a complementary role in managing depression. Given the complexities surrounding depression, a multidisciplinary approach—integrating medical, psychological, and lifestyle strategies—is often the most effective course of action. Regular follow-up with healthcare providers is essential to monitor for any potential side effects of medications and to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment plan.

Preventive Measures

Preventing depression is challenging, as it’s often due to a combination of factors beyond one's control, like biological factors or family history. However, strategies aimed at increasing resilience can reduce the risk or lessen the severity of episodes: • Awareness: Being aware of the signs and symptoms can lead to early detection and treatment. • Manage Stress: Engaging in stress-reduction techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, or yoga can help. • Build Strong Relationships: Having a robust support system can act as a buffer against depressive symptoms. • Regular Exercise: Physical activity can boost mood and mental health by releasing endorphins and providing a constructive outlet for stress. • Healthy Diet: Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains can influence mood and overall health. • Adequate Sleep: Getting sufficient sleep is critical in managing stress and regulating mood. • Professional Help: Seeking therapy when you start to feel overwhelmed can prevent symptoms from worsening. • Limit Alcohol and Avoid Drugs: These substances can increase the risk of depression or make symptoms worse. • Routine: Maintaining a daily routine can help manage depression and improve mood. • Challenging Negative Thoughts: Cognitive-behavioural strategies can help to identify and challenge negative thought patterns.

Do's & Don’t's

Do's Don't
Listen without judgment: Be there to listen and validate their feelings. Don't try to minimize their feelings: Avoid statements like "It's not that bad" or "Just snap out of it."
Encourage professional help: Support seeking therapy or counseling. Don't try to be a therapist: Avoid giving unsolicited advice or attempting to diagnose their condition.
Offer practical support: Help with daily tasks or offer to accompany them to appointments. Don't pressure them: Avoid pushing them to do things they're not ready for.
Be patient and understanding: Depression recovery takes time; offer your ongoing support. Don't take it personally: Understand that their depression isn't about you, even if they seem distant or unresponsive.
Check-in regularly: Show you care by staying in touch and being available. Don't force them to socialize: Respect their need for space if they're not up for social interactions.
Educate yourself about depression: Learn about the condition to understand their experiences better. Don't blame or criticize: Avoid making them feel guilty for their condition.
Encourage healthy habits: Support them in maintaining a balanced diet, exercise, and good sleep routines. Don't invalidate their feelings: Statements like "You have nothing to be sad about" can be harmful.

If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing Depression, it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention by calling emergency services or consult with a Psychologist.

Frequently Asked Questions
No, it's a medical condition.
Yes, it affects people of all ages.
Some mild cases might be treated with psychotherapy alone, but severe cases often require medication.
Genetics can play a role, but it's not the sole factor.
Yes, diet, exercise, and sleep can significantly impact mood and mental well-being.
Yes, untreated or severe depression increases the risk of suicidal thoughts.
Yes, some people experience recurrent episodes.
It varies; some might need lifelong treatment, while others may recover with short-term intervention.
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